Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a behavior problem that is characterized by hyperactivity, inattention, restlessness, and impulsivity and, until recently, was diagnosed primarily in children. It was first defined as Hyperkinetic Disorder of Childhood in 1957 and was commonly known as hyperactivity or hyperactive syndrome until it was renamed ADHD in 1987. The renaming also represented a shift in focus from hyperactive behavior towards the inattention as a characteristic that is major of disorder.
The centers for Disease Control write my essay and Prevention (CDC) estimates 7 percent of school-age (6-10) children have ADHD, with a ratio of 3 to 1 boys to girls in the United States. White children tend to have higher rates of ADHD diagnosis than minority children. The definition of ADHD has broadened in recent years. Now, along with school-age children, ADHD is diagnosed in preschool children, adolescents, and adults, which plays a role in the rising prevalence.
The most typical medical treatment for ADHD is by using psychoactive medications, especially ethyl-phenidate (Ritalin) as well as other stimulant medications (Cylert, Adderall, and Concerta). Treatment rates have increased enormously in recent years; in 2004 the Department of Health and Human Services estimated 5 million children ages 5 to 17 were treated for ADHD in 2000-02, up from 2.6 million in 1994. The treatment and diagnosis of ADHD is much higher in the us compared to other countries, but evidence shows that since the 1990s it’s been rising in other countries as well, as an example, in the uk.
What causes ADHD are not well understood, although various theories have been offered, including dietary, genetic, psychological, and social ones. In past times 2 decades, medical lab researchers have reported genetic susceptibilities to ADHD and found differences in brain imaging results from those with ADHD and individuals without ADHD. Although bio-medical theories of ADHD predominate, the sources of ADHD continue to be largely unknown. Some contend that even when you will find biological differences when considering children with ADHD as well as other children, what is observed might be a reflection of variations in temperament instead of a specific disorder.
ADHD and its particular treatment have now been controversial at the least since the 1970s.
Critics have expressed anxiety about the drugging of schoolchildren, contending that ADHD is merely a label for childhood deviant behavior. Others grant that some children might have a disorder that is neurological but maintain that there’s been an overdiagnosis of ADHD. Every so often some educators and parents have raised concerns about undesireable effects from long-term use of stimulant medications. Child psychiatrists see ADHD as the most common childhood psychiatric disorder and consider psychoactive medication treatment as well established and safe. Parent and consumer groups, such as CHADD (Children and Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder), have a tendency to offer the perspective that is medical of.
Since the 1990s there’s been a significant boost in the diagnosis and treatment of adult ADHD. Whereas childhood ADHD is normally parent or school identified, adult ADHD seems to be largely self-identified. Some researchers have noted that numerous apparently successful adults seek an ADHD diagnosis and medication treatment because of learning about the disorder from professionals, the media, or others, and then seeing their very own life problems reflected into the description of ADHD (e.g., disorganized life, inability to sustain attention, moving from job to job). Adult ADHD remains controversial, however. Many psychiatrists have embraced adult ADHD as a significant problem that is social with claims of tens of vast amounts of dollars in lost productivity and household income as a result of the disorder, whereas critics have suggested it really is “the medicalization of underperformance.”
Sociologists view ADHD as a vintage case of this medicalization of deviant behavior, defining a previously nonmedical problem as a medical one plus the remedy for ADHD as a type of medical control that is social.
Whereas some have remarked that when a problem becomes medicalized it really is less stigmatized, because its origin is observed as physiological or biomedical as opposed to as connected to volitional behavior, others point out the social consequences of medicalizing children’s behavior problems. Some have suggested that medicalizing deviant behavior as ADHD individualizes complex social problems and allows for powerful kinds of medical social control (medications) to be utilized. Secondary gain, accruing social advantages from a medical diagnosis, is also a problem with ADHD. There are reports of adolescents seeking an ADHD diagnosis to achieve disability that is learning in order to acquire certain benefits, such as for instance untimed tests or alternative assignments. The definition of ADHD is a prime example of diagnostic expansion, the widening definition of an accepted diagnosis from a sociological view. For many individuals, ADHD is now deemed a lifelong disorder, with an expanding a long time for diagnosis (from preschool to adult) and a lowered threshold for psychoactive medication treatment. It is more likely that an increasing number of individuals are being identified, labeled, and treated as having ADHD although it is possible that the behaviors characteristic of ADHD are increasing because of some kind of social cause.