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By Merlan, Francesca C.
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Extra resources for A Grammar of Wardaman: A Language of the Northern Territory of Australia
Degemination Wherever geminate clusters of homorganic stops or nasals arise as the result of morpheme combination, the cluster is usually simplified to a single segment. ). It might be claimed that no underlying clusters of homorganic consonants occur in Wardaman; or, more conservatively, that there are no lexical stems with such underlying clusters. Below, this section, a small number of homorganic apical nasal plus nasal clusters are suggested to be underlying structurally in pronominal prefix combinations to the verb, a proposal in keeping with a way of envisioning basic patterning; hence the alternative statement of the claim.
Waray 'ask' vs. 4. Phonotactics: Consonant clusters There are no morpheme-initial consonant clusters except for the very rare combination gl, so far attested in only two forms: -gle 'putrid, rotten', and medially in the (obligatorily reduplicative) particle lowaglowa 'play', gle- has never been found to occur 20 Chapter 2 word-initially, but rather is always preceded by one of the noun class prefixes (yi-gle, wu-gle). There is also a place name wugleni 'Johnstone Hole', which might be related etymologically to the root -gle.
The post-nasal environment is one of neutralization of the apical contrast. Given this, we can say that the de-retroflexion of stem-initial apicals in verbs following nasal-final prefixes is not a specialized word-level phonological process, but part of a general phonotactic limitation. Examples of the relevant environment within verbs are: nga-wun-dagbarla-n Ί keep them', ngang-dagbarla-n Ί am keeping, looking after you (SG)'. , some related processes are discussed. A rule which covers cases of de-retroflexion of basically retroflex consonants as discussed so far may be stated as follows: ΓΝ P-l [+Retro] > [-Retro] / \ l# Here, as noted, # is to be understood not simply as word boundary, but as such a boundary following noticeable pause.
A Grammar of Wardaman: A Language of the Northern Territory of Australia by Merlan, Francesca C.