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Extra info for A reference grammar of Trumai

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Hebrew *q ≈ sˇ, *ð ≈ z, *q. /´s. , *ɣ ≈ ˁ, *h ≈ h. Syriac *q ≈ t, *ð ≈ z/d, *q. /ɣ˘ ≈ ˁ, *h ≈ h. Ugaritic *q. /q. /g, *´s ≈ sˇ, and *´s. ≈ s. 139 on Mon Jul 29 12:31:50 WEST 2013. g. q b ≈ *qrb “middle,” h. 27 Egyptian j has a large number of cognates, but not all are of equal frequency. g. ” Other, less common, cognates are *w and *l: j qt “vegetables” ≈ *wrq “green” (22); jwn ≈ *lwn “color,” jb ≈ *lbb “heart” (32). The first of these possibly represents *w > y, as in *wrq ≈ Hebrew yrq.

Loss of the distinction in aflms between the four ±asp pairs *d/t, *d/t, ¯¯ *¯g/k, and *g/k. g. t = *d rather than t = *d/t). g. *d/g for d/g vs. t/k for t/k. The selectivity of aspiration in Bohairic also shows that it was not simply a feature that this dialect added to the Common Coptic inventory; otherwise, the distinction between minimal pairs such as twri “hand” vs. cwri “willow” is inexplicable (Saidic has twre for both lexemes). 39 Phonetically, however, aspirated consonants are normally voiceless (because it is difficult to use the vocal chords and aspiration simultaneously) and unaspirated consonants are similar to voiced ones.

The four Common Coptic velars *¯g/k/g/k derive primarily from the three ¯ Egyptian consonants q/k/g. The consonants q and g regularly correspond to the unaspirated velars *¯g and *g, while k becomes either aspirated *k or *k or palatalized *¯g. These relationships suggest that q and g were distinguished¯ from k by the absence of aspirability. No distinction between h and h. is discernible on the basis of their Coptic descendants: both become Common Coptic *h. Egyptian h corresponds only to ¯ *h and occasionally *h.

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A reference grammar of Trumai by Raquel Guirardello

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