An introduction to radiation protection - download pdf or read online
By Alan D Martin; Samuel A Harbison
An advent to Radiation safety is an available account of the character of the risks awarded by way of ionizing radiation and the tools of safeguard, for these new to the sector and for the non-specialist.
This ebook takes the reader throughout the normal heritage to the topic, the technical ideas underlying the keep watch over of radiation dangers, the organic results of radiation, and radiation detection and dimension. those are by way of a attention of extra really expert themes together with radiation safety in drugs and within the nuclear energy undefined, radioactive waste administration and radiological emergencies
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Extra info for An introduction to radiation protection
There are very few human data in this region but, from animal experiments, the symptoms indicate some damage to the central nervous system; hence, the region is called the region of central nervous system death. However, it is found that death is not instantaneous even in animals irradiated with doses in excess of 500 Gy. Another effect which shows up soon after an acute over-exposure to radiation is erythema, that is, reddening of the skin. In many situations the skin is subject to more radiation exposure than most other tissues.
Beta radiation causes ionization of a similar density to ␥ radiation and so the weighting factor is also one for ␤ radiation. The value of wR for neutrons depends on the neutron energy and varies from five for thermal neutrons to 20 for fast. For ␣ and other multiply-charged particles wR is also taken as 20. 1. 0002 Gy. What is his total equivalent dose? 019 Sv In the remainder of the book, we generally refer to equivalent dose simply as dose, except where this could lead to confusion. 5 EFFECTIVE DOSE A further complication is that different organs and tissues have differing sensitivities to radiation and, to deal with the very common situation in which the body is not uniformly exposed, another concept is needed and this is called effective dose, E.
It was pointed out in the previous chapter that a very small, but finite, fraction of the natural mutations in cells must be beneficial since they have contributed to the evolution of higher forms of life. Conversely, some genetic mutations lead to hereditary defects and genetic death. It is clear that these two effects have achieved some sort of balance and that life has evolved to its present state despite background radiation, or perhaps even because of it. In addition to the natural sources of background radiation many artificial sources of radiation have been introduced since the discovery of X-rays and radioactivity at the end of the nineteenth century, and particularly since the exploitation of the process of nuclear fission in the middle of the twentieth century.
An introduction to radiation protection by Alan D Martin; Samuel A Harbison